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Independence Era


Article II Transitional Provisions of 1945 Constitution states that, every state agencies and laws previously present shall be deemed applicable as long as the no new agencies/laws introduced according to the constitution. This means that all regulation concerning judicial bodies shall be deemed applicable as long as no new amendment is introduced.

With occupation of Dutch Government in some part of Indonesia, the Dutch issue regulation concerning judiciary power through Verordening Number 11 Year 1945 which establish judiciary power within the general court jurisdiction to be carried out by Landgerecht and Appelraad using HIR as its procedural law.

In this era, government also enact Act Number 19 Year 1948 on National Judiciary which has never been effectively implemented.


Article 192 of the Federation Republic of Indonesia stipulates that Landgerecht shall be changed into District Court and Appelraad to be changed into Appeal Court.


Enactment of Emergency Act Number 1 Year 1951 has then unified the composition, power and procedure of all court of first instance and all appellate court in Indonesia, as well as eliminates some courts, including adat court and self-governing court.

1959 until the Enactment of Act No. 14 Year 1970

During this period there are several specialized court under the ambit of the court of first instance in general court, namely Economic Court (Emergency Act Number 7 Year 1955), Landreform Court (Act Number 21 Year 1964). Further, in the year 1970 government passes Act Number 14 Year 1970 which stipulates in article 10 that there are 4 court jurisdictions, namely general court, religious court, military court and state administrative court.

Post Constitutional Amendment

After the amendment of 1945 Constitution in the early 2000, the judiciary power is carried out by Supreme Court and a Constitutional Court. The important event taking place during this period is handing over the authority of courts management from executive into Supreme Court which results the Supreme Court have authority over management of human resources, finance and asset of all courts in Indonesia.

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