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Netherlands Indie Colonial Period

The first formal national court system was established by the Dutch colonial government, the court organization was firstly established by the Netherlands-Indie government on the date of 1 May 1848 through the passing of the Regulation on the Court Structure and Judicial Policy 1848 (RO). The ROs regulates the structure of the court in accordance with the composition of society at that time. Article 1 RO mention that there are 6 types of courts:


With authority to hear civil dispute with Indonesian citizen defendant with value below f20-.


With authority to hear civil dispute for native Indonesian with value between f.20-f.50 and as appellate court for decisions of districtsgerecht.


Is an ordinary court for native Indonesian and with some exceptions civil cases which involve Chinese peoples with legal status equally treated as Native Indonesia, or in the case where they were withdrawn by European or Chinese, in addition to that, landraad also serves as an appellate court for cases decided by regenschapgerecht as long as appeal is possible.

rechtbank van omgang amended in 1901 into residentiegerecht and in 1914 into landgerecht.

To hear cases in the first and final instance by not distinguish any origins to the people who become the defendant.

raad van justisie

Sits in Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya hear cases which involve the citizen of all origins in accordance with applicable regulation.


Is the apex of judicial power and sits in Jakarta to supervise the implementation of court in overall Indonesia.

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